The effect of ergogenic supplements and mediterranean diet on cycling performance. Differences according to duration and intensity.

Sousana Papadopoulou, Elpiniki Kroustalloudi, Ioannis Pagkalos, Anna Kokkinopoulou, Maria Hassapidou

Abstract


Arab Journal of Nutrition and Exercise, Vol. 2, No. 1

Published on 29th April, 2017

Abstract

Aims: To record the prevalence and the type of supplement use among cyclists and to estimate the effect of caffeine, carbohydrates, energy drinks and meddiet score on 200m and 4km cycling time-trial performances in a Greek sample.

Methods: Fifty male cycling athletes aged 32±20 years participated in a randomized, double-blind study. The subjects were submitted to anthropometric measurements and body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance. All participants completed the meddiet Score questionnaire and a validated questionnaire about their ergogenic aids’ preference. The athletes performed two cycling trials (200m and 4km) and their records were taken down and were evaluated according to their consumption of caffeine, carbohydrates and energy drinks and their meddiet score. For the statistical analysis SPSS, v20 was used.

Results: Greek cyclists had a mean BMI value of 23.65±2.74 and a mean body fat percentage of 15.82±8.33. Endurance and speed performances were improved with caffeine consumption when compared to no consumption (7.42±3.92min vs 12.5±3.16min, p<0.001 and 20.75±15.69sec vs 34.07±16.25sec, p<0.05, respectively), as well as with energy drinks’ consumption (8.77±4.15min vs 13.25±2.47min, p<0.001 and 20.35±14.08sec vs 39.14±14.38sec, p<0.001, respectively). Carbohydrates’ intake improved performance in the endurance test (7.60±3.72min vs 12.86±2.92min, p<0.001), but did not have a positive influence in the speed test (25.73±18.68sec vs 33.08±15.95sec, p>0.05).

Conclusions: Ergogenic aids had a positive effect on the athletic performance in terms of speed and endurance in cyclists.

 

Key words: Cycling; Athletic performance; Ergogenic aids; Mediterranean diet


Keywords


Cycling; Athletic performance; Ergogenic aids; Mediterranean diet

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abian P, Del Coso J, Salinero JJ, Gallo-Salazar C, Areces F, Ruiz-Vicente D, Lara B, Soriano L, Muñoz V, Abian-Vicen J. The ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance and activity patterns in elite badminton players. J Sports Sci. 2015; 33: 1042–1050.

Anastasiou CA, Kavouras SA, Koutsari C, Georgakakis C, Skenderi K, Beer M, Sidossis LS. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004; 14: 609–625.

Arrese AL, Ostáriz ES. Skinfold thicknesses associated with distance running performance in highly trained runners. J Sports Sci. 2006; 24: 69–76.

Barrero A, Erola P, Bescós R. Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event. Nutrients. 2014; 7(1): 209-222.

Beattie K, Carson BP, Lyons M, Kenny IC. The Effect of Maximal- & Explosive-Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Cyclists. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016; 1–25.

Beaumont R, Cordery P, Funnell M, Mears S, James L, Watson P. Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine. J Sports Sci. 2016; 1–8.

Black CD, Waddell DE, Gonglach AR. Caffeine’s Ergogenic Effects on Cycling: Neuromuscular and Perceptual Factors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015; 47: 1145–1158.

Bortolotti H, Altimari LR, Vitor-Costa M, Cyrino ES. Performance during a 20-km cycling time-trial after caffeine ingestion. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014; 11: 45.

Braun H, Koehler K, Geyer H, Kleinert J, Mester J, Schänzer W. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab. 2009; 19(1): 97-109.

Broad EM, Maughan RJ, Galloway SDR. Effects of four weeks L-carnitine L-tartrate ingestion on substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005; 15: 665–679.

Brooks JH, Wyld K, Chrismas BC. Caffeine Supplementation as an Ergogenic Aid for Muscular Strength and Endurance: A Recommendation for Coaches and Athletes. J Athl Enhanc. 2016.

Brunngard H. Physical activity and modulation of systemic low-level inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78(4): 819-835.

Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011; 29(Suppl 1): S17-S27.

Burke LM, Millet G, Tarnopolsky MA. International Association of Athletics Federations, Nutrition for distance events. J Sports Sci. 2007; 25(Suppl 1): S29-38.

Calfee R, Fadale P. Popular Ergogenic Drugs and Supplements in Young Athletes. Pediatrics. 2006; 117: 577–589.

Chlíbková D, Knechtle B, Rosemann T, Tomášková I, Chadim V, Shortall M. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers. Springer Plus. 2014; 3: 715.

Clauson KA, Shields KM, mcqueen CE, Persad N. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008; 48: 55-67

Close GL, Hamilton DL, Philp A, Burke LM, Morton JP. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 98: 144–158.

Colombani PC, Mannhart C, Wenk C, Frey WO. Nutritional intake during a 244 km multisport ultraendurance race. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2002; 1(3): 124-126.

Correia-Oliveira CR, Bertuzzi R, Dal’Molin Kiss MAP, Lima-Silva A.E. Strategies of dietary carbohydrate manipulation and their effects on performance in cycling time trials. Sports Med Auckl NZ. 2013; 43: 707–719.

Dascombe BJ, Karunaratna M, Cartoon J, Fergie B, Goodman C. Nutritional supplementation habits and perceptions of elite athletes within a state-based sporting institute. J Sci Med Sport. 2010; 13(2): 274–280.

Diehl K, Thiel A, Zipfel S, Mayer J, Schnell A, Schneider S. Elite Adolescent Athletes’ Use of Dietary Supplements: Characteristics, Opinions, and Sources of Supply and Information. Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab. 2012; 22: 165 -174.

Erdman KA, Fung TS, Doyle-Baker PK, Verhoef MJ, Reimer RA. Dietary supplementation of high-performance Canadian athletes by age and gender. Clin J Sport Med. 2007; 17(6): 458-464.

Eudy AE, Gordon LL, Hockaday BC, Lee DA, Lee V, Luu D, Martinez CA, Ambrose PJ. Efficacy and safety of ingredients found in preworkout supplements. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2013; 70: 577–588.

Foddy B, Savulescu J. Ethics of performance enhancement in sport: drugs and gene doping. Principles of Health Care Ethics, Second Edition. 2007; 511-519.

Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23: 315–324.

Geesmann B, Mester J, Koehler K. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014; 24: 497–506.

Geyer H, Parr MK, Koehler K, Mareck U, Schδnzer W, Thevis M. Nutritional supplements crosscontaminated and faked with doping substances. Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2008; 43(7): 892–902.

Glaister M, Pattison JR, Muniz-Pumares D, Patterson SD, Foley P. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29: 165–174.

Graham-Paulson T, Perret C, Goosey-Tolfrey V. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users. Nutrients. 2016; 8(7): 393.

Hassapidou NM, Manstrantoni A. Dietary intakes of elite female athletes in Greece. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001; 14: 391-396.

Hassapidou MN, Fourtounopoulos D, Efstratiou E, Kitsou S, Papakitsos C. Dietary intakes of Greek basketball players. Nutr Food Sci. 2003; 33(1): 23-27.

Henning AD, Dimeo P. The complexities of anti-doping violations: a case study of sanctioned cases in all performance levels of USA cycling. Perform Enhanc Health. 2014; 3: 159–166.

Higgins S, Straight CR, Lewis RD. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016; 26: 221–239.

Hodgson AB, Randell RK, Jeukendrup AE. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. Plos One. 2013; 8(4): 59561.

Huang SHS, Johnson K, Pipe AL. The use of dietary supplements and medications by Canadian athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. Clin J Sport Med. 2006; 16(1): 27-33.

Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao Y-H, Hwang J. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009; 19: 61–78.

Jeukendrup AE, Hopkins S, Aragón-Vargas LF, Hulston C. No effect of carbohydrate feeding on 16 km cycling time trial performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008; 104: 831–837.

Khanna, GL, Manna I. Supplementary effect of carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on sports performance, lactate removal & cardiovascular response of athletes. Indian J Med Res. 2005; 121: 665–669.

Khodaee M, Olewinski L, Shadgan B, Kiningham RR. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2015; 14: 435–441.

Kimber NE, Ross JJ, Mason SL. Speedy DB. (2002). Energy balance during an ironman triathlon in male and female triathletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012; 12: 47-62.

Knechtle B, Wirth A, Rüst CA, Rosemann T. The Relationship between Anthropometry and Split Performance in Recreational Male Ironman Triathletes. Asian J Sports Med. 2011; 2: 23–30.

Knechtle B, Zingg MA, Rosemann T, Stiefel M, Rüst CA. What predicts performance in ultra-triathlon races? - a comparison between Ironman distance triathlon and ultra-triathlon. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015; 6: 149–159.

Lane SC, Areta JL, Bird SR, Coffey VG, Burke LM, Desbrow B, Karagounis LG, Hawley JA. Caffeine ingestion and cycling power output in a low or normal muscle glycogen state. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013; 45: 1577–1584.

Lee MJC, Hammond KM, Vasdev A, Poole KL, Impey SG, Close GL, Morton JP. Self-selecting fluid intake while maintaining high carbohydrate availability does not impair half-marathon performance. Int J Sports Med. 2014; 35: 1216–1222.

Little JP, Chilibeck PD, Ciona D, Forbes S, Rees H, Vandenberg A, Zello GA. Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010; 20: 447–456.

Lourida I, Soni M, Thompson-Coon J, Purandare N, Lang IA, Ukoumunne OC, Llewellyn DJ. Mediterranean diet, cognitive function, and dementia: a systematic review. Epidemiology. 2013; 24(4): 479-489.

Lystrup RM, Leggit JC. Caffeine Toxicity Due to Supplement Use in Caffeine-Naïve Individual: A Cautionary Tale. Mil Med. 2015; 180: 936-940.

Malinauskas BM, Overton RF, Carraway VG, Cash BC. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes. Advances in Medical Sciences. 2007; 52: 50–54.

Marcos A, Nova E, Montero A. Changes in the immune system are conditioned by nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57(1): S66-S69.

Martínez-Sellés M, Datino T, Figueiras-Graillet L, Gama JG, Jones C, Franklin R, Fernández-Avilés F. Cardiovascular Safety of Anagrelide in Healthy Subjects: Effects of Caffeine and Food Intake on Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Reactions. Clin Drug Investig. 2013; 33: 45–54.

Maughan RJ, King DS, Lea T. Dietary supplements. J Sports Sci. 2004; 22(1): 95–113.

Maughan RJ. 2005. Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sports Sci. 2005; 23(9): 883–889.

Miller B, O’Connor H, Orr R, Ruell P, Cheng HL, Chow CM. Combined caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion: effects on nocturnal sleep and exercise performance in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014; 114: 2529–2537.

Nicolò A, Bazzucchi I, Felici F, Patrizio F, Sacchetti M. Mechanical and electromyographic responses during the 3-min all-out test in competitive cyclists. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2015; 25: 907–913.

Nieper A. Nutritional supplement practices in UK junior national track and field athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2015; 39(9): 645-649.

Nikolopoulos DD, Spiliopoulou C, Theocharis SE. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 25: 535–563.

O'Neal EK, Wingo JE, Richardson MT, Leeper JD, Neggers YH, Bishop PA. Halfmarathon and full-marathon runners' hydration practices and perceptions. J Athl Train. 2011; 46(6): 581-591.

Ormsbee MJ, Bach CW, Baur DA. Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 1782–1808.

Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006; 16(8): 559-568.

Papandreou D, Eystathiadis P, Bouzoukiu V, Hassapidou M, Tsitskaris G, Garefis A. Dietary assessment, anthropometric measurements and nutritional status of Greek professional athletes. Nutr Food Sci. 2007; 37(5): 338-344.

Papadopoulou SK. Food Choice criteria of adolescents. The role of physical activity and anthropometric, dietetic and psychological factors. Unpublished Dissertation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. 2001.

Papadopoulou SK, Gouvianaki A, Grammatikopoulou MG, Maraki Z, Pangalos IG, Hassapidou MN. Body fat status and energy and nutrient intake of elite cross-country skiers, members of the Greek national team. Asian J Sports Med. 2012; 3(4): 257-266.

Papadopoulou SK, Papadopoulou SD. Nutritional status of team sport athletes according to body fat status. Nutr Food Sci. 2010; 40:64-73.

Papadopoulou SD, Papadopoulou SK, Zaggelidis G, Konstantinidou X, Tsitskaris G, Maraki Z. Dietary and health related habits of Greek elite female team sport athletes. Stiinta Sportului “Sports Science magazine”. 2009; 1: 79-91.

Papadopoulou SK, Papadopoulou SD, Skoufas D, Yiannakos A, Natsis K. Dietary intake differences between volleyball and handball women athletes of the Olympic national team. Medicina Sportiva. 2008; 16: 983-989.

Papadopoulou SK, Papadopoulou SD, Gallos GK. Macro and Micro-nutrient Intake of Adolescent Greek Female Volleyball players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002; 12: 73-80.

Paton C, Costa V, Guglielmo L. Effects of caffeine chewing gum on race performance and physiology in male and female cyclists. J Sports Sci. 2015; 33: 1076–1083.

Petróczi A, Naughton DP, Pearce G, Bailey R, Bloodworth A, mcnamee M. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: Fallacies of advice regarding efficacy. J Int Soc Sport Nutr. 2008; 5: 22.

Pettitt RW, Niemeyer JD, Sexton PJ, Lipetzky A, Murray SR. Do the noncaffeine ingredients of energy drinks affect metabolic responses to heavy exercise? J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27: 1994–1999.

Porrini M, Del Boʼ C. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements. In Sports Endocrinology (Vol. 47, pp. 128-152). Karger Publishers. 2016.

Pöchmüller M, Schwingshackl L, Colombani PC, Hoffmann G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of carbohydrate benefits associated with randomized controlled competition-based performance trials. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016; 13(1): 27.

Quiterio AL, Carnero EA, Silva AM, Baptista F, Sardinha LB. Weekly training hours are associated with molecular and cellular body composition levels in adolescent athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2009; 49: 54–63.

Rodriguez NR, dimarco NM, Langley S, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 509–527.

Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, Lee CH, Estruch R, Clish CB, Ros E. Protective effects of the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2016; 146(4): S920- S927.

Sánchez-Benito JL, Sánchez-Soriano E, Ginart Suárez J. Assessment of the Mediterranean Diet Adequacy Index of a collective of young cyclists. Nutr Hosp. 2009; 24: 77–86.

Sánchez-Muñoz C, Zabala M, Muros JJ. Nutritional intake and anthropometric changes of professional road cyclists during a 4-day competition. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016; 26: 802–808.

Shearer J, Graham TE. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal. Nutr Rev. 2014; 72(Suppl 1): 121–136.

Siegel-Tike P, Rosales-Soto G, Herrera Valenzuela T, Durán Agüero S, Yáñez Sepúlveda R. Body composition parameters and relationship with the maximal aerobic power in recreational cyclists. Nutr Hosp. 2015; 32: 2223–2227.

Sofi F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 1189–1196.

Spence AL, Sim M, Landers G, Peeling P. A comparison of caffeine versus pseudoephedrine on cycling time-trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013; 23: 507–512.

Stellingwerff T, Maughan RJ, Burke LM. Nutrition for power sports: middle-distance running, track cycling, rowing, canoeing/kayaking, and swimming. J Sports Sci. 2011; 29(Suppl 1): S79-89.

Suzic Lazic J, Dikic N, Radivojevic N, Mazic S, Radovanovic D, Mitrovic N, Lazic M, Zivanic S, Suzic S. Dietary supplements and medications in elite sport–polypharmacy or real need? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011; 21(2): 260-267.

Talanian JL, Spriet LL. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: 850–855.

Tanda G, Knechtle B. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015; 6: 129–136.

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 501–528.

Wardenaar FC, Ceelen IJ, Van Dijk JW, Hangelbroek RW, Van Roy L, Van der Pouw B, De Vries JHM, Mensink M. Witkamp RF. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016; 1-25.

Winger JM, Dugas JP, Dugas LR. Beliefs about hydration and physiology drive drinking behaviours in runners. Br J Sports Med. 2011; 45(8): 646-649.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Indexed: Google Scholar